May 27, 2014

The Business and Economic Impacts of 3D Printing

The Business and Economic Impacts of 3D Printing
A Research Workshop
3 June 2014
RWTH Aachen University

Workshop Hosts & Chairs: Joel West and Frank Piller

The convergence of 3D printing (additive manufacturing) with developments like open source licensing, repositories to share 3D data and files, and platforms to access manufacturing capacity has created an environment where innovation is flourishing, but also where current regulatory schemes and business models are ill equipped to deal with this changing landscape. While 3D printing has been largely covered by research from the engineering discipline, currently also management scholars and economists are starting to join the debate. In this workshop, we strive to explore the field and exchange ideas for research, share results from early projects, and co-create opportunities for future joint projects.

The workshop is organized as part of the RWTH Cluster of Excellence "Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries" (, a €70 million research program between five schools and more than 100 researchers at RWTH Aachen.

For more information, contact Frank Piller or Joel West.

1200Registration and light networking lunch
1230Welcome: Prof. Frank Piller, Chair of Technology and Innovation Management, RWTH Aachen: “When Industry meets the Maker Economy -- Objectives, Introductions, and an Overview of Current Research on 3D at RWTH Aachen & Beyond”
1300Opening talk: Prof. Joel West, KGI Keck Graduate Institute, USA: “The Impact of 3D Printing: The First Three Decades
1330Opening talk: Prof. Reinhart Poprawe, RWTH Aachen & Fraunhofer ILT: “Photonic Production: Commercial Applications & Opportunities
1400Q&A for Keynotes
1415Institutional presentation: Dr. Letizia Mortara, Dr. Simon Ford and Dominik Deradjat, Centre for Technology Management, Institute for Manufacturing, University of Cambridge:  “The Cambridge Bit by Bit Programme: Objectives and current research”
1435Research presentation: Prof. Thierry Rayna and Ludmila Striukova, Chair of Digital Business, ESG Management School, Paris: “From Rapid Prototyping to Home Fabrication: How 3D Printing is Changing Business Model Innovation
Research presentation: Dr. Robin Kleer and Prof. Frank Piller, TIM Group, RWTH Aachen:”Welfare Effects of Radical Process Innovation: Benefits of Local Production by Users via 3D Printing
1545Research presentation: Dr. Letizia Mortara, Dr. Simon Ford and Dominik Deradjat, Centre for Technology Management, Institute for Manufacturing, University of Cambridge: “Classifying Fab Spaces: A Cluster Analysis”
Research presentation: Christian Weller, TIM Group, RWTH Aachen, “Enhancing Customization by 3D Printing: Value Creation of Additive Manufacturing from a Consumer’s Perspective”
Research presentation: Simon Bock, Anne Greul, Dr. Theo Sch√∂ller endowed chair for Technology- and Innovationmanagement, TU Munich, & Prof. Joel West, KGI, “Leveraging Open Source Hardware Communities: Current Research on 3D Printing Entrepreneurs”
Research presentation: Prof. Peter Letmathe, Accounting Group, RWTH Aachen, “Cost Management of Fast-Changing Technologies”
1845Summary & Adjourn
1930Dinner hosted by RWTH TIM at Restaurant Elisenbrunnen

May 21, 2014

Innovation with structural equation models

As a doctoral student, I was very interested in structural equation modeling: I joined SEMNET, cataloged SEM packages, took a SEM class with Peter Bentler, turn my class term paper into journal pub and prepared to use SEM for my dissertation. (The lack of normality in the my survey’s DV forced me to instead use logit modeling).

More than a decade later, I’m looking at doing another SEM model and needed to get up to date on current norms. When I was taking my class, fit indices were just becoming common. Now Prof. Bentler has 20,000+ cites for his 1999 paper on fit indices (versus a mere 12,000 for his 1990 paper).

As a quick way to identify those norms was to look for papers mentioning "structural equation" in Research Policy. I looked through the first 25 articles. Some of these papers use SEM cites (or methods) to do a confirmatory factor analysis, a couple don’t mention a specific package.

However, I was able to identify 12 path models estimated using SEM software:
  • Only one used Lisrel — and that was published back in January 2004. In the 1980s and 1990s, most SEM papers were written using Lisrel.
  • Instead, the most popular package is Amos (7 papers). But that shouldn’t be surprising, because it’s bundled with SPSS, one of the most popular social science stat bundles. (Both SAS and Stata have structural equation modules but it seems like neither are used much).
  • While both Amos and Lisrel use traditional covariance modeling, I was not surprised to find that four papers used software based on partial least squares (PLS), Herman Wold’s pioneering prediction algorithm. PLS relaxes distributional assumptions (required by ML covariance modeling) and thus has enviable properties for small samples and cases of non normality (such that some have been deluded into considering it a silver bullet.)
  • As with the 1980s LV-PLS package of Jan-Bernd Lohm√∂ller, today’s PLS packages are distributed as freeware. Two articles used PLS-Graph by the pioneer of PLS application to MIS research, Wynne Chin.
  • One RP article used SmartPLS, a German freeware package.
  • Finally, one used PLS-PM, one of the many structural equation extensions for the open source R package.
In fact, the R repository (CRAN) lists at least seven free packages:
  • lavaan: Latent Variable Analysis
  • pls: Partial Least Squares and Principal Component regression
  • plspm: Tools for Partial Least Squares Path Modeling (PLS-PM)
  • RAMpath: Structural Equation Modeling using the reticular action model (RAM) Notation
  • rsem: Robust Structural Equation Modeling with Missing Data and Auxiliary Variables
  • sem: Structural Equation Models
  • semPLS: Structural Equation Modeling Using Partial Least Squares
An eighth add-on for R, the NIH-funded OpenMX, is not distributed via CRAN, but is available for free download. A 2011 analysis by Cardiff University researchers showed that the results were largely the same between the R-derived packages and the commercial packages.

My dissertation was about switching costs by PC software users: psychic switching costs predicted switching decisions better than economic ones. Right now, time is scarcer than money, so my big concern is learning to use a package that’s later orphaned. If I’m going to learn a new package, I figure I’ll pick one of the open source R packages — because the net present value of having to switch in the future is negative, and it’s safe to assume that R (like Linux and Android) isn’t going away any time soon.

May 9, 2014

CFP: 1st World Open Innovation Conference and Industrial & Corporate Change

1st Annual World Open Innovation Conference


Special Section of Industrial and Corporate Change

Silverado Resort, Napa, California: December 4-5, 2014

Conference Co-Chairs:
Henry Chesbrough, UC Berkeley / ESADE
Frank Piller, RWTH Aachen
Chris Tucci, EPFL
Joel West, Keck Graduate Institute

Call for Papers
Abstract submission deadline: July 115, 2014

Since the publication of the first Open Innovation book (Chesbrough, 2003), the ideas of open innovation have been changing both the practice and theories of innovation.

Through open innovation, firms can manage the inflows of external knowledge that can be harnessed in their own innovation efforts. They can also purposively direct outflows of knowledge to maximize the returns to internal innovation. Together, these purposively managed knowledge flows — when aligned to a firm’s business model — allow firms to maximize their returns from creating and commercializing innovations (Chesbrough & Bogers, 2014).

In its first decade, open innovation both changed the practice of innovation and how that practice was conceived. Open innovation provided a new conceptual paradigm that helped shift managers away from an inward-looking focus to one of external engagement, encouraging them to develop new models for creating and commercializing innovations.

During that same period, research on open innovation has brought new insights into the antecedents and consequences of the core inbound and outbound processes identified in the original Open Innovation manifesto. However, researchers have also identified new constructs, new approaches to measurement, new collaboration structures, new links to extant theory, and new empirical contexts. Nonetheless, there are many unanswered theoretical and empirical questions for open innovation, spanning multiple contexts and levels of analysis (Vanhaverbeke et al, 2014; West et al, 2014).

To help identify and develop the best new theoretical and applied research in this area, we are organizing the first annual World Open Innovation Conference (WOIC). The conference will allow leading open innovation scholars to present their work, interact with other scholars studying related topics, and hear the latest trends in open innovation research.

A special feature of the conference will be the engagement of open innovation managers to understand and discuss future research on the key challenges they face today. A separate Call for Problems will be used to identify relevant problems and managerial participants.

Conference papers will be selected by the co-chairs from among extended abstracts submitted through the conference website. Conference papers will be considered for publication in a special section of Industrial and Corporate Change that will be edited by the conference chairs.

Potential Topics

Possible topics include (but are not limited to):
  • How firms organize to achieve open innovation
  • How open innovation shapes business models (and vice versa)
  • The use of open innovation by government and other not-for-profit entities
  • Coupled and network forms of open innovation collaboration
  • Open service innovation and the impact of open innovation upon new service offerings
  • The relationship between open and proprietary IP models and firm open innovation business models
  • The role of individuals in the open innovation process
  • Analyzing open innovation between or across multiple levels of analysis
  • Developing metrics for measuring the impact of open innovation
  • Linking open innovation to broader theories of management or economics
  • The moderating effects of organizational or national culture upon open innovation
  • The effect of government policies in helping (or hindering) open innovation
Additional information on these and other topics can be found in several recent literature reviews (Chesbrough and Bogers, 2014; Piller & West, 2014; Vanhaverbeke et al, 2014; West & Bogers, 2013; West et al, 2014).


Two types of submissions are being sought:
  • Research Papers: Extended abstracts for empirical or conceptual papers — with theoretical and/or managerial implications — will be considered for the research paper portion of the program.
  • Call for Problems: Managers and other practitioners of open innovation are encouraged to submit a confidential description of their problems. For the exact format, see the Call for Problems.
Both forms of submissions will be submitted via the conference online submission system. The program committee will evaluate proposals, but will not provide reviews of the proposals.

Research Papers and Industrial and Corporate Change

The conference chairs will be editing a special section of Industrial and Corporate Change. Research papers submitted to the conference will be considered for the special issue unless the authors indicate otherwise.

All research papers should be submitted in the following format:
  • Extended abstract: The total length (including title page, references, figures and tables) should be 1,500-3,000 words, single spaced, with standard fonts and margins.
  • Complete conference papers: Authors of all accepted papers (extended abstracts) are required to submit a double-spaced manuscript of 10,000 words or less prior to the conference. If possible, the title page and references should be formatted according to ICC style. This is the paper that will be shared with the discussant and (unless otherwise indicated) with other conference participants.
  • Special issue: Authors who wish to be considered for the special issue will submit a revised version of their paper after the conference to the ICC special section editors.
  • June 118, 2014: Submission system opens
  • July 15, 2014: Deadline for submission of research abstracts and calls for problems
  • August 1, 2014: Notification of accepted papers
  • September 1, 2014: Registration deadline for accepted papers
  • November 15, 2014: Final research papers due
  • December 4 (8:00am) to December 5 (5:30pm): conference at the Silverado Resort and Spa, Napa, California.
  • January 2, 2015: Submission of research papers to the special section of Industrial and Corporate Change
  • Late 2015: Scheduled publication of ICC special section
  • Chesbrough, Henry (2003). Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
  • Chesbrough, Henry and Marcel Bogers (2014). “Explicating Open Innovation: Clarifying an Emerging Paradigm for Understanding Innovation,” Chapter 1 in Henry Chesbrough, Wim Vanhaverbeke and Joel West, eds., New Frontiers in Open Innovation, Oxford: Oxford University Press.†
  • Piller, Frank and Joel West (2014). “Firms, Users, and Innovation: An Interactive Model of Coupled Open Innovation,” Chapter 2 in Henry Chesbrough, Wim Vanhaverbeke and Joel West, eds., New Frontiers in Open Innovation, Oxford: Oxford University Press.†
  • Vanhaverbeke, Wim, Joel West and Henry Chesbrough (2014). “Surfing the New Wave of Open Innovation Research,” Chapter 15 in Henry Chesbrough, Wim Vanhaverbeke and Joel West, eds., New Frontiers in Open Innovation, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.†
  • West, Joel and Marcel Bogers (2014). “Leveraging External Sources of Innovation: A Review of Research on Open Innovation,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, 31 (4): 814-831. DOI: 10.1111/jpim.12125
  • West, Joel, Ammon Salter, Wim Vanhaverbeke, Henry Chesbrough (2014). “Open innovation: The next decade,” Research Policy, 43 (5): 805-811. DOI: 10.1016/j.respol.2014.03.001
† See book information

Conference Website

Update June 18: The conference website and online submission system are now live, and the submission deadline has been extended to July 15.